What Was the Main Goal of the 1997 Kyoto Protocol

Although the Kyoto Protocol was a diplomatic feat, its success was far from certain. In fact, reports from the first two years after the treaty entered into force suggested that most participants would not meet their emissions targets. However, even if the targets were met, the ultimate environmental benefits would not be significant, according to some critics, as China, the world`s largest emitter of greenhouse gases, and the United States, the world`s second largest emitter, would not be bound by the protocol (China because of its status as a developing country and the United States because it has not ratified the protocol). Other critics claimed that the emission reductions called for in the protocol were too modest to make a demonstrable difference in global temperatures in the decades that followed, even though they were fully achieved with the participation of the United States. At the same time, some developing countries have argued that improving adaptation to climate variability and change is just as important as reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Overall, the 36 countries that have fully participated in the Protocol have committed to reducing their total emissions by 4 per cent compared to the base year 1990. Their average annual emissions in 2008-2012 were 24.2% below 1990 levels. Therefore, they have exceeded all their commitment with a great commitment. Including the United States and Canada, emissions decreased by 11.8%.

The significant cuts were mainly due to the dissolution of the Soviet Union, which reduced the Eastern bloc`s emissions by tens of percent in the early 1990s. In addition, the 2007/08 financial crisis significantly reduced emissions during the first Kyoto commitment period. [7] The Protocol defines a “compliance” mechanism as “the monitoring of compliance with obligations and sanctions in the event of non-compliance.” [91] According to Grubb (2003)[92], the explicit consequences of non-compliance with the Treaty are small compared to national law. [92] Nevertheless, the section on compliance with the treaty in the Marrakesh Accords was highly controversial. [92] The Kyoto Protocol is an international agreement to control and reduce carbon dioxide emissions and greenhouse gases. The Protocol was adopted at a conference in Kyoto, Japan, in 1997 and declared international law on 16 February 2005. The main sulfur impurities in heating oils are usually mercaptans, sulphides, disulfides, thiophenes and benzothiophenes. Due to the differences between gasoline and diesel compositions, they have different optimal desulfurization RTL.

In both cases, the central task in designing a RTIL-based separation system is to find a TGLN that dissolves sulfur-containing compounds without dissolving hydrocarbons. Due to the great solvent power of most RTTLs, this task is not easy. For example, thiophene [Omim] [BF4] dissolves very well and is virtually immiscible with cyclohexane and n-hexane (Fig. 10), but it also dissolves aromatics that are good for octane number, such as toluene (Table 5). Most studies that have identified RNts capable of desulfurizing fuels (some of which simultaneously remove nitrogen contaminants) have ignored the effects on the hydrocarbon composition of the fuel. It is only through quantitative studies of liquid-liquid equilibrium that it will be possible to identify ILTs that ensure an optimal balance between the extraction of sulfur compounds and the extraction of hydrocarbons. 18 November 2004 – The Russian Federation ratifies the Protocol. Japan`s national policy to achieve its Kyoto target includes the purchase of AAUs sold under GIS. [57] In 2010, Japan and Japanese companies were the main customers of AAUs.

[56]:53 As far as the international carbon market is concerned, AAU trade represents only a small part of the total market value. [56]:9 In 2010, 97% of trade on the international carbon market was managed by the European Union Emissions Trading System (EU ETS). [56]:However, companies covered by the EU ETS are not able to use AAUs to meet their emission ceilings. [58] To achieve this level, these so-called Annex B Parties (or Annex I parts under the UNFCCC) have adopted differentiated quantified emission limitation or reduction commitments (QELRC), such as an 8% reduction for . B of the European Union (EU). a 6% reduction for Canada and Japan and stabilization for the Russian Federation. The United States, which is the world`s largest emitter of CO2 (IEA, 1999), has committed to a 7% reduction target, but in March 2001 the Americans withdrew from the protocol. The United States has not only criticized the fact that developing countries are still exempt from the emission cap. China is the second largest emitter of CO2 in the world (IEA, 1999), but they also claimed that the Kyoto target would harm the US economy (Bush, 2001). Opponents of this position, both inside and outside America, have argued that there are and still are reasonable grounds for the (temporary) exemption of developing countries from emission ceilings, largely based on arguments of historical responsibility and poverty reduction, and that the Kyoto target would cost the United States no more than, say, 0.1-2% of their GDP growth (e.B. . .

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